Summaries are significantly shorter than the original material, and they take a broad overview of the source material as a whole. Summary must be cited with in-text citations and on your reference page.
You want to establish background or offer an overview of a topic
You want to describe knowledge (from several sources) about a topic
You want to determine the main ideas of a single source
Paraphrasing is stating an idea or passage in your own words. You must significantly change the wording, phrasing, and sentence structure (not just a few words here and there) of the source. These also must be noted with in-text citations and the reference page.
You want to clarify a short passage from a text
You want to avoid overusing quotations
You want to explain a point when exact wording isn’t important
You want to explain the main points of a passage
You want to report numerical data or statistics (preferred in APA papers)
Quotations are the exact words of an author, copied directly from a source, word for word. Quotations must appear with quotation marks, and they need to be cited with in-text citations and on the reference page.
Use quotations when:
You want to add the power of an author’s words to support your argument
You want to disagree with an author’s argument
You want to highlight particularly eloquent or powerful phrases or passages
You are comparing and contrasting specific points of view
You want to note the important research that precedes your own