As new technology develops every day, it makes sense that these new forms are popping up in papers. PowerPoint presentations, podcasts, and blogs are only a few of the new types of media that are making their way into academic papers including the myriad other types of files accessible on the Internet, such as Portable Document Format (.pdf), electronic spreadsheet files, and plain text files. The way that you cite these types of sources depends on how you accessed or viewed the sources. If accessed over the Internet, these sources should be cited as an online source. If accessed from a CD-ROM, these sources should be cited as a CD-ROM. Blogs and podcasts would be cited as an online source, like a website.
Note: As with any source, check the validity. If possible, research the author. Many blogs and podcasts can be valid sources, such as National Public Radio’s or the Wall Stree Journal Law Blog. Be discriminating and use the same techniques you would use to determine a web sites validity.
Note: The following examples are in MLA format, but the same rules apply with APA as well.
If you attended a conference presentation or meeting where you took notes on the PowerPoint presentation, you would cite it as a lecture or public address (see Example 1). If you accessed the PowerPoint presentation on the internet, cite it as a web source (see Example 2). When citing the PowerPoint presentation as a website, you do not need to write out what type of file it is if the file extension identifies it as a PowerPoint source.
Lawrence, Laurie. “Broodmare Nutrition.” PowerPoint presentation. Embassy Suites,
Lexington, KY. 16 Feb 2006.
George Mason University Writing Center. “Plot Summary versus Interpretive Writing.” George
Mason University Writing Center. PowerPoint. 2000. 15 July 2006.
A blog should be cited as a website with a full link to the post.
Lattman, Peter. “A Tussle Over Presidential Signing Statements.” Wall Street Journal Law
Blog. 17 August 2006. 18 August 2006.
Podcasts all have a URL through which you access the file. In I-Tunes, click on “Podcast Information” to view the URL. Podcasts should be cited as an online source as well.
“Atlatl.” TERRA: The Nature Podcast. 17 July 2006. 15 August 2006.