Examples are from Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (6th ed.)
Turabian Style suggests that writers in the humanities use footnote references to cite sources. A professor may also require a bibliography page. You should indicate sources for quotations (exact words) and paraphrases (ideas stated in your words) in your writing. A superscript numeral in the text indicates the use of an outside source; the corresponding footnote at the bottom of the page provides the source’s complete publication information.
Below are a list of some of the most commonly used citation categories and examples of what information should be included in that citation, as well as how the information should be arranged. When you need to cite a source, follow these steps:
Decide to which category your source belongs. Is it a book? Anthology? Online source? Journal article? Etc.?
Collect the necessary information from your source. Sometimes this takes a bit of digging, especially with the online sources.
Arrange the vital information exactly as it appears in the examples, including all styles and punctuation.
Once you have all of your citations written, arrange them in alphabetical order depending on the first word in the
citation on a “Bibliography” page at very end of your paper.
BASIC FORMAT FOR A BIBLIOGRAPHIC ENTRY (BOOK):
Franklin, John Hope. George Washington Williams: A Biography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.
A WORK WITH MULTIPLE AUTHORS:
Quirk, Randolf, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartik. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London, England: Longman Group Limited, 1985.
AN ARTICLE IN A PRINT JOURNAL (PAGINATED BY VOLUME):
Watson, George J. “Cultural Imperialism: An Irish View.” The Yale Review 75, no. 4 (Summer 1986): 503-16. AN ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE:
Savalis, Telly. “Crime Story.” Variety, 24 September 1986, 74.
BOOK REVIEW IN A PRINT JOURNAL:
Rockland, James K. Review of The American Dream, by Jonathan Davies. History Journal 12, no. 1 (22 April 2000): 32-33.
King, Martin Luther, Jr. I Have a Dream. August 1963. Internet on-line. Available from <http://www.queens.lib.ny.us/mlk/>. [4 July 1999].
Robson, Barbara. The Cubans: Their History and Culture. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics, Refugee Service Center, 1996. ERIC, ED 398322.
Entries on footnotes differ from the bibliography page in the following ways:
Subsequent lines are not indented.
Entries are numbered.
Entries do not appear alphabetically, but they appear in the order they are referenced in the paper.
Entries begin with first name and then last name.
Publication city and publisher are in parentheses.
Entries indicate specific pages cited.
BASIC FORMAT FOR A QUOTATION, PARAPHRASE, OR SUMMARY:
Text: Jevons tried to develop a program of scientific economics from Bentham’s doctrine, creating out of the combination a “calculus of pleasure and pain.”1
Footnote: 1. William Stanley Jevons, The Theory of Political Economy, 2d ed. rev. (London: Macmillan, 1879), 21.
SUBSEQUENT REFERENCE TO A SOURCE ALREADY CITED:
2. Jevons, Political Economy, 27.
A WORK WITH MULTIPLE AUTHORS:
Two or three authors:
3. Robert Lynd and Helen Lynd, Middletown: A Study in American Culture. (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1929), 67.
Four or more authors:
4. Martin Greenberger and others, eds., Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer and Information Resources Nationwide (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1974), 50.
AN ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL (PAGINATED BY VOLUME):
5. Lawrence P. Smith, “Sailing Close to the Wind,” Politics in Action 10, no. 4 (1993): 82, 99-100.
AN ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE:
6. Bruce Weber, “The Myth Maker: The Creative Mind of E. L. Doctorow,” New York Times Magazine, 20 October 1985, 42.
BOOK REVIEW IN A JOURNAL:
7. Dwight Frankfather, review of Disabled State, by Deborah A. Stone, Social Service Review 59 (September 1985): 524.
8. John Fowles, “A Conversation with John Fowles,” interview by Robert Foulke (Lyme Regis, 3 April 1984), Salmagundi, nos. 68-69 (fall 1985-winter 1986): 370.